Mutualism

Mutualism Mutualism [Latin mutuus, borrowed or reciprocal] defines the relationship in which some reciprocal benefit accrues to both partners. This is an obligatory relationship in which the mutualist and the host are metabolically dependent on each other. Several examples of mutualism are presented next: The protozoan-termite relationship The protozoan-termite relationship is a classic example of …

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Legionella Epidemiology Pathogenesis Diagnosis Treatment Prevention

Legionella: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention

Legionella: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention Legionella is a genus of Gram-negative bacilli that take their name from the American Legion convention where they were first discovered. The species designation of the prime human pathogen, Legionella pneumophila, reflects its propensity to cause pneumonia. Legionella species are widespread in the environment. Legionella are inhaled into the …

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Rabies: virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prevention

Rabies: virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prevention

Rabies Rabies is an acute fatal viral illness of the central nervous system (CNS). The word rabies is derived from the Latin verb to rage, which suggests the appearance of the rabid patient. It can affect all mammals and is transmitted between them by infected secretions, most often by bite. It was first recognized more …

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cancer

Overview of Cancer

Overview of Cancer Cancer causes about one-fifth of the deaths in the United States each year. Worldwide, between 100 and 350 of each 100,000 people die of cancer each year. Cancer is due to failures of the mechanisms that usually control the growth and proliferation of cells. During normal development and throughout adult life, intricate …

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FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY

FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY: Principle, Instrumentation and Application

FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY: Principle, Instrumentation and Application Principles Fluorescence spectroscopy is an emission phenomenon where an energy transition from a higher to a lower state is accompanied by radiation. Only molecules in their excited forms are able to emit fluorescence; thus, they have to be brought into a state of higher energy prior to the emission …

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Centrifugation

Introduction of Centrifugation and Principle of Sedimentation

Introduction of Centrifugation and Principle of Sedimentation INTRODUCTION Biological centrifugation is a process that uses centrifugal force to separate and purify mixtures of biological particles in a liquid medium. It is a key technique for isolating and analysing cells, subcellular fractions, supramolecular complexes and isolated macromolecules such as proteins or nucleic acids. The development of …

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THE COMMON COMPONENTS OF CULTURE MEDIA FOR MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY

THE COMMON COMPONENTS OF CULTURE MEDIA FOR MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY

THE COMMON COMPONENTS OF CULTURE MEDIA FOR MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY An examination of the formulae of culture media commonly shows a few key nutrient ingredients, and several other components added for the selection and/or identification of separate groups or species of bacteria. All life is dependent on the presence of water and all the nutrients from …

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Lymphoma Non Hodgkin

Rituximab and Ibritumomab: Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies That Treat Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Rituximab and Ibritumomab: Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies That Treat Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a malignant growth of B or T cells of the lymph system. It has been estimated by the American Cancer Society that in 2007 alone approximately 63,000 new cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma were diagnosed, resulting in approximately 19,000 deaths. In fact, about …

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