Basic Microbiology

Mutualism

Mutualism Mutualism [Latin mutuus, borrowed or reciprocal] defines the relationship in which some reciprocal benefit accrues to both partners. This is an obligatory relationship in which the mutualist and the host are metabolically dependent on each other. Several examples of mutualism are presented next: The protozoan-termite relationship The protozoan-termite relationship is a classic example of …

Mutualism Read More »

Virus Purification and Assays

Virus Purification and Assays

Virus Purification and Assays Virologists must be able to purify viruses and accurately determine their concentrations in order to study virus structure, reproduction, and other aspects of their biology. These methods are so important that the growth of virology as a modern discipline depended on their development. Virus Purification Purification makes use of several virus …

Virus Purification and Assays Read More »

(A) Anton deBary. (B) Louis Pasteur. (C) Robert Koch.

Koch’s postulates

Koch’s postulates Robert Koch (1843–1910) was a medical doctor and a bacteriologist. He was the first to show, in 1876, that anthrax, a disease of sheep and other animals, including humans, was caused by a bacterium that he called Bacillus anthracis. He subsequently discovered, in 1882, that tuberculosis and, in 1883, that cholera are each …

Koch’s postulates Read More »

Diatoms

Dinoflagellate and Diatoms

Dinoflagellate The dinoflagellates (also known variously as Pyrrophyta, or ‘fire algae’) are chiefly marine planktonic types, comprising some 2000 species. This is another unicellular group, but one whose cells are often covered with armoured plates known as thecae (sing:theca). They are generally biflagellate, with the two dissimilar flagella lying in part within the longitudinal and lateral grooves that …

Dinoflagellate and Diatoms Read More »

production of monoclonal antibodies

Monoclonal antibodies and production of monoclonal antibodies

Monoclonal antibodies and production of monoclonal antibodies Monoclonal Antibodies:  Antibodies that arise from a single clone of cells (e.g., myeloma) are homogenous and are called monoclonal antibodies. For example, in multiple myeloma, antibodies are produced by a single clone of plasma cells against a single antigenic determinant, and hence antibodies are monoclonal. The monoclonal antibodies …

Monoclonal antibodies and production of monoclonal antibodies Read More »

Anaerobic Culture Media, Specimen Collection and Methods of Anaerobic Culture

Anaerobic Culture Media, Specimen Collection and Methods of Anaerobic Culture

Anaerobic Culture Media, Specimen Collection and Methods of Anaerobic Culture Obligate anaerobes are bacteria that can live only in the absence of oxygen. These anaerobes are killed when exposed to the atmosphere for as briefly as 10 minutes. Some anaerobes are tolerant to small amounts of oxygen. Facultative anaerobes are those anaerobes that grow with or …

Anaerobic Culture Media, Specimen Collection and Methods of Anaerobic Culture Read More »