Basic Microbiology

Diatoms

Dinoflagellate and Diatoms

Dinoflagellate The dinoflagellates (also known variously as Pyrrophyta, or ‘fire algae’) are chiefly marine planktonic types, comprising some 2000 species. This is another unicellular group, but one whose cells are often covered with armoured plates known as thecae (sing:theca). They are generally biflagellate, with the two dissimilar flagella lying in part within the longitudinal and lateral grooves that …

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production of monoclonal antibodies

Monoclonal antibodies and production of monoclonal antibodies

Monoclonal antibodies and production of monoclonal antibodies Monoclonal Antibodies:  Antibodies that arise from a single clone of cells (e.g., myeloma) are homogenous and are called monoclonal antibodies. For example, in multiple myeloma, antibodies are produced by a single clone of plasma cells against a single antigenic determinant, and hence antibodies are monoclonal. The monoclonal antibodies …

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Anaerobic Culture Media, Specimen Collection and Methods of Anaerobic Culture

Anaerobic Culture Media, Specimen Collection and Methods of Anaerobic Culture

Anaerobic Culture Media, Specimen Collection and Methods of Anaerobic Culture Obligate anaerobes are bacteria that can live only in the absence of oxygen. These anaerobes are killed when exposed to the atmosphere for as briefly as 10 minutes. Some anaerobes are tolerant to small amounts of oxygen. Facultative anaerobes are those anaerobes that grow with or …

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Culture methods in microbiology

Culture methods in microbiology

Culture methods in microbiology Culture methods in microbiology are very crucial in a microbiology laboratory. Various culture methods are carried out to: Isolate bacteria in pure culture and identification by performing various tests. Demonstrate biochemical, antigenic, and other phenotypic and genomic properties of the isolated colonies. Demonstrate susceptibility of the isolated bacteria to antibiotics, bacteriophages, bacteriocins, …

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Sterilization

Sterilization

Sterilization Sterilization Sterilization is defined as a process by which an article, surface, or medium is freed of all living microorganisms. Any material that has been subjected to this process is said to be sterile. Methods of sterilization can be broadly classified as: Physical methods of sterilization. Chemical methods of sterilization. Physical methods of sterilization …

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Bacterial Growth Curve

Bacterial Growth Curve

Bacterial Growth Curve When a broth culture is inoculated with a small bacterial inoculum, the population size of the bacteria increases. The bacterial growth curve shows the following four distinct phases. Lag phase, Log phase, Stationary phase, Decline phase. Lag phase: After a liquid culture broth is inoculated, the multiplication of bacteria does not start immediately. It takes …

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Prokaryotic Cells

Prokaryotic Cells

Prokaryotic Cells INTRODUCTION A prokaryotic cell is a cell that does not have a true nucleus. The nuclear structure is called a nucleoid. The nucleoid contains most of the cell’s genetic material and is usually a single circular molecule of DNA. A prokaryotic organism, such as a bacterium, is a cell that lacks a membrane- …

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