Immunology

cancer

Overview of Cancer

Overview of Cancer Cancer causes about one-fifth of the deaths in the United States each year. Worldwide, between 100 and 350 of each 100,000 people die of cancer each year. Cancer is due to failures of the mechanisms that usually control the growth and proliferation of cells. During normal development and throughout adult life, intricate …

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Lymphoma Non Hodgkin

Rituximab and Ibritumomab: Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies That Treat Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Rituximab and Ibritumomab: Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies That Treat Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a malignant growth of B or T cells of the lymph system. It has been estimated by the American Cancer Society that in 2007 alone approximately 63,000 new cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma were diagnosed, resulting in approximately 19,000 deaths. In fact, about …

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Regulation of Complement, Biological Effects of Complement and Deficiency of Complement System

Regulation of Complement, Biological Effects of Complement and Deficiency of Complement System

  Regulation of Complement System The complement system involves the formation of many biologically active substances, there are several regulatory systems to prevent unwarranted injury to the human host. The activities of the various complement components activated at every stage of the cascade are regulated by several mechanisms. The regulators of the complement system are as follows: Level of antibody …

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Immunosuppressive agents

Immunosuppressive agents

Immunosuppressive agents Immunosuppressive agents are those that suppress immune response. They are used in transplantation surgery and in situations that require suppression of host immunity. The agents are as follows: X-irradiation Radiometric drugs Corticosteroids Antimetabolites Antilymphocyte serum X-irradiation: Sublethal dose of irradiation is toxic to replicating cells and is used to suppress antibody formation. Antibody …

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Overview of pathways of complement activation

Classical, Alternative and Lectin Pathway of Complement System

Classical Pathway of Complement System The classical pathway is a chain of events in which complement components react in specific sequences as a cascade resulting in cell lysis. It is activated by antibody bound to antigen but never by native or free antibody. Activators of the classical pathway: Activators of classical pathways include the following: Immunoglobulins …

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Factors affecting production of antibodies

Factors affecting production of antibodies

Factors affecting production of antibodies Many factors affect the production of antibodies. These factors are discussed below: Genetic factors Age Nutritional status Route of antigen Dose of antigen Multiple antigens Adjuvants Genetic factors: Genetic factors influence the response of the host to antigen. Persons responding to antigens are called responders, while persons not responding are …

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Overview of pathways of complement activation

Complement System: Properties, Components and Activation

Complement System: Properties, Components and Activation The term complement (C) refers to a system of factors that occurs in normal serum and is activated by antigen-antibody interaction. The complement system belongs to the group of biological effector mechanisms (called triggered enzyme cascades) which also includes coagulation, and the fibrinolytic and kinin systems. GENERAL PROPERTIES Complement is …

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Antigen epitope

Epitopes

Epitopes An epitope is defined as the immunologically active region of an immunogen that binds to antigen-specific membrane receptors on lymphocytes or secreted antibodies. The interaction between cells of the immune system and antigens takes place at many levels and the complexity of any antigen is mirrored by its epitope. There are two types of …

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Differences between innate and acquired immunity

Differences between innate and acquired immunity

Differences between innate and acquired immunity There are two general types of immunity:- Innate immunity  Acquired immunity Innate immunity:  The innate immune system includes anatomical barriers against infection both physical and chemical as well as cellular responses Acquired immunity: Acquired immunity is also called adaptive immunity.  Acquired immunity against a microbe may be induced by the …

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Cell mediated immunity vs Humoral immunity

Cell mediated immunity vs Humoral immunity

Cell mediated immunity vs Humoral immunity Cell-mediated immunity: It is mediated by both activated TH cells and CTLs. Cytokines secreted by TH cells activate various phagocytic cells, enabling them to phagocytose and kill microorganisms. This type of cell-mediated immune response is especially important against a host of bacterial and protozoal pathogens. CTLs play an important …

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