Immunology

Haptens

Haptens

Haptens Haptens are small organic molecules that are antigenic but not immunogenic. They are not immunogenic because they cannot activate helper T cells. Failure of hapten to activate helper T cells is due to their inability to bind to MHC proteins; they cannot bind because they are not proteins and only proteins can be presented …

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Agglutination

Agglutination Agglutination is an antigen–antibody reaction in which an antigen combines with its antibody in the presence of electrolytes at a specified temperature and pH resulting in formation of visible clumping of particles. Agglutination occurs when antigens and antibodies react in equivalent proportions. Agglutination reactions have a wide variety of applications in the detection of both …

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Immunofluorescence

Immunofluorescence

Immunofluorescence The property of certain dyes absorbing light rays at one particular wavelength (ultraviolet light) and emitting them at a different wavelength (visible light) is known as fluorescence. Fluorescent dyes, such as fluorescein isothiocyanate and lissamine rhodamine, can be tagged with antibody molecules. They emit blue-green and orange-red fluorescence, under ultraviolet (UV) rays in the …

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Precipitation

Precipitation

Precipitation Precipitation shows the following features: It is a type of antigen–antibody reaction, in which the antigen occurs in a soluble form. It is a test in which antibody interacts with the soluble antigen in the presence of electrolyte at a specified pH and temperature to produce a precipitate. A lattice is formed between the …

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Antigen Antibody Reactions

Antigen Antibody Reactions

Antigen Antibody Reactions Introduction The interactions between antigens and antibodies are known as antigen antibody reactions. The reactions are highly specific, and an antigen reacts only with antibodies. These reactions are essentially specific, they have been used in many diagnostic tests for the detection of either the antigen or the antibody. The antigen and antibody …

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Types of Vaccines

Types of Vaccine

Types of Vaccines What Is a Vaccine? Vaccines play an important role in controlling the spread of viruses. A vaccine is a suspension that contains a part of a pathogen that induces the immune system to produce antibodies that combat the antigen. The concept of a vaccine stems from the variolation process that was used in …

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T Cells

T Cells

T Cells T cells develop from stem cells in bone marrow and migrate to the thymus gland where they mature. They then migrate to the lymphatic system to begin their fight against antigens. The “T” stands for thymus gland. Once the organism reaches late adulthood, the ability to create new T cells diminishes, resulting in …

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B Cells

B Cells

B Cells B cells are cells that develop from stem cells in the bone marrow and the liver of fetuses. They are transported to the lymph nodes and spleen where they use antigen receptors, also known as antigen-binding sites, on the cell’s surface to antigens. Once an antigen is detected, the B cell with T cells …

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Immunoglobulins  (Igs)

Immunoglobulins

Immunoglobulins   Antibodies are known as immunoglobulins (Igs), which is a group of soluble proteins. An antigen can cause the production of different antibodies if the antigen has several epitopes. Epitopes or antigenic determinants, are known as antigen binding sites. The number of antigen-binding sites is called the antibody’s valence. There are at least two antigen-binding sites …

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Immunity

Immunity

Immunity There’s a battle going on beneth the skin, Thousands of microbes crawl in the body in a daily invasion. Yet we rarely notice because an army of B cells, T cells, natural killer cells, and other parts of your immune system counterattack, ripping most microbes to pieces. Those that survive gives a runny nose, cough, and …

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