Differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

Differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

Differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

Overview of Prokaryotic Cells

  1. A prokaryotic cell is a cell that does not have a true nucleus.
  2. The nuclear structure is called a nucleoid.
  3. The nucleoid contains most of the cell’s genetic material and is usually a single circular molecule of DNA.
  4. A prokaryotic organism, such as a bacterium, is a cell that lacks a membrane- bound nucleus or membrane-bound organelles.
  5. The exterior of the cell usually has glycocalyx, flagellum, fimbriae, and pili.

Overview of Eukaryotic Cells

  1. A eukaryotic cell is larger and more complex than a prokaryotic cell and found in animals, plants, algae, fungi, and protozoa.
  2. Eukaryotic cell have  a highly organized structure of organelles that are bound by a membrane.
  3. Each organelle performs a specialized function for the cell’s metabolism.
  4. Eukaryotic cells also contain a membranebound nucleus where the cell’s DNA is organized into chromosomes.
  5. Depending on the organism, a eukaryotic cell may contain  flagella and cilia.
  6. These are used for moving  the cell’s surface or for moving the entire cell.
  7. Flagella move the cell in a wavelike motion within its environment.
  8. Flagella and cilia are comprised of axoneme microtubules.
  9. An axoneme microtubule is a long, hollow tube made of protein called a tubulin.

 

Differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell

Characteristics

Prokaryotic Cells

Eukaryotic Cells

Cell wall Include peptidoglycan
Chemically complex
Chemically simple
Plasma membrane No carbohydrates
No sterols
Contain carbohydrates
Contain sterols
Glycocalyx Contain a capsule or
a slime layer
Contained in cells that
lack a cell wall
Flagella Protein building blocks Multiple microtubules
Cytoplasm No cytoplasmic streaming Contain cytoskeleton
Contain cytoplasmic streaming
Membrane-bound
organelles
None Endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi complex
Lysomes
Mitochondria
Chloroplasts
Ribosomes 70S 80S
Ribosomes located in
Organelles are 70S
Nucleus No nuclear membrane
No nucleoli
0.2–2.0 mm in diameter
Have a nucleus
Have a nuclear membrane
Have a nucleoli
10–100 mm in diameter
Chromosomes Single circular chromosome
No histones
Multiple linear chromosomes
Have histones
Cell division Binary fission Mitosis
Sexual reproductions No meiosis
DNA transferred in fragments
Meiosis

Differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

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