Wine production

Alcoholic fermentations, Wine and Beer production

Alcoholic fermentations, Wine and Beer production There is evidence that alcoholic drinks, including beer and wine, were being produced thousands of years before the Christian era, making them among the earliest known examples of the exploitation of microorganisms by humans. Ethanol results from the fermentation process, because the conversion of sugar to carbon dioxide and water is incomplete: C6H12O6 −−−−−−−→ 2CH3CH2OH + …

Alcoholic fermentations, Wine and Beer production Read More »

Regulation of Complement, Biological Effects of Complement and Deficiency of Complement System

Regulation of Complement, Biological Effects of Complement and Deficiency of Complement System

  Regulation of Complement System The complement system involves the formation of many biologically active substances, there are several regulatory systems to prevent unwarranted injury to the human host. The activities of the various complement components activated at every stage of the cascade are regulated by several mechanisms. The regulators of the complement system are as follows: Level of antibody …

Regulation of Complement, Biological Effects of Complement and Deficiency of Complement System Read More »

Immunosuppressive agents

Immunosuppressive agents

Immunosuppressive agents Immunosuppressive agents are those that suppress immune response. They are used in transplantation surgery and in situations that require suppression of host immunity. The agents are as follows: X-irradiation Radiometric drugs Corticosteroids Antimetabolites Antilymphocyte serum X-irradiation: Sublethal dose of irradiation is toxic to replicating cells and is used to suppress antibody formation. Antibody …

Immunosuppressive agents Read More »

Diatoms

Dinoflagellate and Diatoms

Dinoflagellate The dinoflagellates (also known variously as Pyrrophyta, or ‘fire algae’) are chiefly marine planktonic types, comprising some 2000 species. This is another unicellular group, but one whose cells are often covered with armoured plates known as thecae (sing:theca). They are generally biflagellate, with the two dissimilar flagella lying in part within the longitudinal and lateral grooves that …

Dinoflagellate and Diatoms Read More »

Overview of pathways of complement activation

Classical, Alternative and Lectin Pathway of Complement System

Classical Pathway of Complement System The classical pathway is a chain of events in which complement components react in specific sequences as a cascade resulting in cell lysis. It is activated by antibody bound to antigen but never by native or free antibody. Activators of the classical pathway: Activators of classical pathways include the following: Immunoglobulins …

Classical, Alternative and Lectin Pathway of Complement System Read More »

Factors affecting production of antibodies

Factors affecting production of antibodies

Factors affecting production of antibodies Many factors affect the production of antibodies. These factors are discussed below: Genetic factors Age Nutritional status Route of antigen Dose of antigen Multiple antigens Adjuvants Genetic factors: Genetic factors influence the response of the host to antigen. Persons responding to antigens are called responders, while persons not responding are …

Factors affecting production of antibodies Read More »

production of monoclonal antibodies

Monoclonal antibodies and production of monoclonal antibodies

Monoclonal antibodies and production of monoclonal antibodies Monoclonal Antibodies:  Antibodies that arise from a single clone of cells (e.g., myeloma) are homogenous and are called monoclonal antibodies. For example, in multiple myeloma, antibodies are produced by a single clone of plasma cells against a single antigenic determinant, and hence antibodies are monoclonal. The monoclonal antibodies …

Monoclonal antibodies and production of monoclonal antibodies Read More »

Overview of pathways of complement activation

Complement System: Properties, Components and Activation

Complement System: Properties, Components and Activation The term complement (C) refers to a system of factors that occurs in normal serum and is activated by antigen-antibody interaction. The complement system belongs to the group of biological effector mechanisms (called triggered enzyme cascades) which also includes coagulation, and the fibrinolytic and kinin systems. GENERAL PROPERTIES Complement is …

Complement System: Properties, Components and Activation Read More »

Antigen epitope

Epitopes

Epitopes An epitope is defined as the immunologically active region of an immunogen that binds to antigen-specific membrane receptors on lymphocytes or secreted antibodies. The interaction between cells of the immune system and antigens takes place at many levels and the complexity of any antigen is mirrored by its epitope. There are two types of …

Epitopes Read More »