Theophrastus, the father of botany

Plant diseases as the wrath of gods by theophrastus

Plant diseases as the wrath of gods by Theophrastus Theophrastus, the “father of botany.” The climate and soil of countries around the eastern Mediterranean Sea, from where many of the first records of antiquity came to us, allow the growth and cultivation of many plants. The most important crop plants for the survival of people …

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Biosafety guidelines and regulations for GMOs, GLP and GMP

Biosafety guidelines and regulations for GMOs, GLP and GMP

Biosafety guidelines and regulations for GMOs, GLP and GMP Introduction “BIOSAFETY” refers to the efforts that ensure safety in using, transporting, transferring, handling, releasing and disposing of biological organism including genetically modified organism which are capable of harming human, animals, plants or environment. It also refers to the policies and procedures adapted to ensure the …

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Tobacco Mosaic Virus

The Contribution of Tobacco Mosaic Virus to Biology and Medicine

The Contribution of Tobacco Mosaic Virus to Biology and Medicine Tobacco mosaic virus has contributed greatly to our understanding of not only the plant viruses and their effects in plants, but also of the viruses of humans and animals and, furthermore, of the structure and function of the genetic code in all organisms. Some of …

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Phytoalexins

Phytoalexins

Phytoalexins Phytoalexins are toxic antimicrobial substances produced in plants only after stimulation by various types of phytopathogenic microorganisms or by chemical and mechanical injury. Phytoalexins are produced by healthy cells adjacent to localized damaged and necrotic cells in response to materials diffusing from the damaged cells. Phytoalexins are not produced during compatible biotrophic infections. Phytoalexins …

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WHISKY PRODUCTION

WHISKY PRODUCTION

WHISKY PRODUCTION Whiskies are prepared from malted barley, exclusively in the case of Scottish and Irish malt whiskies, or with various proportions of added cereal starch for other whiskies, such as bourbon, grain and rye whiskey. Blended Irish and Scottish whiskies contain a mixture of grain and malt whiskies. The malt, and other cereals where …

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cylindroconical fermentation vessel

The fermentation process

The fermentation process The main factors that affect the fermentation rate and influence beer quality are: The amount of yeast used to inoculate or pitch the fermentation. Yeast cell viability and yeast quality. The level of dissolved oxygen in wort at pitching. Wort soluble nitrogen concentration. Wort fermentable carbohydrate concentration. Temperature. British ales are traditionally …

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Fermentation systems

Fermentation systems

Fermentation systems Microbiologists use the term fermentation in total two different contexts. First, in metabolism, fermentation refers to energy-generating processes wherever organic compounds act as both electron donor and acceptor.  Second, within the context of industrial microbiology, the term also refers to the growth of huge quantities of cells under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, within …

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Wort Preparation

WORT PREPARATION

WORT PREPARATION The objectives of wort preparation are to form, and extract into solution, fermentable sugars, amino acids, vitamins, etc., from malt and other solid ingredients. Malt normally provides most of the potential fermentable materials and sufficient enzymes to generate a well balanced fermentation medium. Typically, British beer is prepared from 75% malt, and 25% …

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Malt and malting

MALT AND MALTING

MALT AND MALTING Malting involves the controlled partial germination of barley grain. This modifies the hard vitreous grain into a friable (easily crushed) form containing a lot of readily degradable starch and generates hydrolytic enzymes, particularly amylases, b-glucanases and proteases. Barley grains have approximately 65% starch, located within the endosperm region. Endosperm cells are filled with starch granules embedded in …

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beer process

Beer brewing

Beer brewing The name beer is given to non-distilled alcoholic beverages are made from partially germinated cereal grains, known as malt. They include ales, lagers and stouts, which normally contain 3–8% (v/v) ethanol.  The other main ingredients are hops (giving beer a characteristic aroma and flavour), yeast and water. The brewing process is mainly divided into four main stages:- Malting Mashing and …

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