Meiosis Meiosis is the general name given to two successive nuclear divisions called meiosis I and meiosis II. Meiosis takes place in special diploid cells called meiocytes. Because of the two successive divisions, each meiocyte cell gives rise to four cells, 1 cell →2 cells →4 cells. The four cells are called products of meiosis. …

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Bioremediation Earth’s surface became contaminated with natural and xenobiotic toxic chemicals. Examples include polluted aquifers and other water bodies, mining areas, and industrial sites contaminated with petrochemical products, pesticides, heavy metals, radionuclides and many of the xenobiotics The basic principle of bioremediation involves utilizing the activity of microorganisms naturally present in the soil and water, or …

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the carbon cycle

The Carbon Cycle

The Carbon Cycle The primary biogeochemical cycle is the carbon cycle. In biogeochemical cycles elements are oxidized and reduced by microorganisms to meet their metabolic needs. All organisms, including plants, microbes, and animals, contain large amounts of carbon in the form of organic compounds such as cellulose, starches, fats, and proteins. Autotrophs perform an essential …

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Mitosis Introduction When cells divide, the chromosomes must also make copies of themselves (replicate) to maintain the appropriate chromosome number in the cells. In eukaryotes, the chromosomes replicate in two main types of nuclear divisions, called mitosis and meiosis. These two types of divisions are quite different and have different functions, some of the molecular …

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Recent trends in microbial taxonomy2

Recent trends in microbial taxonomy

Recent trends in microbial taxonomy Recent trends in microbial taxonomy includes:- Chemotaxonomy Molecular method Numerical taxonomy Genetic method Serological method Taxonomy based on ecology Chemotaxonomy chemotaxonomy is the classification of bacteria based on chemical composition of cells and fermentation product which is analyzed by the various method or techniques like chromatography, electrophoresis. Major chemical compounds …

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bt cotton

Bt Cotton

Bt Cotton Introduction A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. The first genetically modified mouse was created in 1974 by Rudolf Jaenisch and the first plant was produced in 1983. Bt cotton is a genetically modified variety of cotton that produce an insecticide. Bacillus …

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Prebiotics Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and activity of the micro-flora. They were first identified and named by Marcel Roberfroid in 1995. Prebiotics are heat resistant, which keep them intact during the baking process and allow them to be incorporated into every day food. By consuming a …

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AGAROSE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS INTRODUCTION Agarose gel electrophoresis is a method to separate DNA, or RNA molecules by size. This is achieved by moving negatively charged nucleic acid molecules through an agarose matrix with an electric field (electrophoresis). Shorter molecules move faster and migrate farther than longer ones . PRINCIPLE The basic principle of separation for all electrophoresis is the movement …