Types of Vaccines
What Is a Vaccine?
- Vaccines play an important role in controlling the spread of viruses.
- A vaccine is a suspension that contains a part of a pathogen that induces the immune system to produce antibodies that combat the antigen.
- The concept of a vaccine stems from the variolation process that was used in eighteenth-century England to protect people from smallpox.
Types of Vaccines:
There are six types of vaccines. These are:
Attenuated whole agent
- These vaccines are designed for people who have a normal immune system.
- The attenuated whole agent vaccine uses weakened living microbes to mimic the real infection to produce 95 percent immunity over a long term without the need of a supplemental vaccination called a booster.
- Common attenuated vaccines include those for tuberculosis bacillus, measles, rubella, Sabin polio, and mumps.
Inactivated whole agent
- These vaccines are not designed for people who have an abnormal immune system.
- The inactivated vaccine uses dead microbes that were killed by phenol or formalin.
- Common inactivated vaccines include those for pneumonia, Salk polio, rabies, influenza, typhoid, and pertussis (commonly known as whooping cough).
- The toxoid vaccine is made of toxins produced by a virus or bacteria that has been inactive.
- They used against toxins that are produced by a disease-causing microorganism.
- Patients require a booster vaccination every 10 years because the toxoid vaccine does not provide lifelong immunity.
- Common toxoid vaccines include those for diphtheria and tetanus.
- These vaccines have few side effects.
- The subunit vaccine uses fragments of a microorganism to create an immune response.
- Subunit vaccines are produced by using genetic engineering techniques to insert the genes of an antigen into another organism are called recombinant vaccines.
- Common subunit vaccines include those for hepatitis B.
- These are new and are designed for children under 24 months whose immune system normally does not respond well to vaccines based on capsular polysaccharides.
- These polysaccharides are T-independent antigens.
- The vaccine is produced by combing the polysaccharides with a protein.
- These vaccines are in the animal testing stage.
- The nucleic acid vaccine, which is also called the DNA vaccine, contains plasmids of naked DNA and is designed to produce protein that stimulates an immune response.
- The nucleic acid vaccine has a strong effect on large parasites and viruses.
Types of Vaccines