Types of Vaccine

Types of Vaccines

Types of Vaccines

What Is a Vaccine?

  • Vaccines play an important role in controlling the spread of viruses.
  • A vaccine is a suspension that contains a part of a pathogen that induces the immune system to produce antibodies that combat the antigen.
  • The concept of a vaccine stems from the variolation process that was used in eighteenth-century England to protect people from smallpox.

Types of Vaccines:

There are six types of vaccines. These are:

Attenuated whole agent

  • These vaccines are designed for people who have a normal immune system.
  • The attenuated whole agent vaccine uses weakened living microbes to mimic the real infection to produce 95 percent immunity over a long term without the need of a supplemental vaccination called a booster.
  • Common attenuated  vaccines include those for tuberculosis bacillus, measles, rubella, Sabin polio, and mumps.

Inactivated whole agent

  • These vaccines are not designed for people who have an abnormal immune system.
  • The inactivated vaccine uses dead microbes that were killed by phenol or formalin.
  • Common inactivated vaccines include those for pneumonia, Salk polio, rabies, influenza, typhoid, and pertussis (commonly known as whooping cough).

Toxoids

  • The toxoid vaccine is made of toxins produced by a virus or bacteria that has been inactive.
  • They used against toxins that are produced by a disease-causing microorganism.
  • Patients require a booster vaccination every 10 years because the toxoid vaccine does not provide lifelong immunity.
  • Common toxoid vaccines include those for diphtheria and tetanus.

Subunit

  • These vaccines have few side effects.
  • The subunit vaccine uses fragments of a microorganism to create an immune response.
  • Subunit vaccines are produced by using genetic engineering techniques to insert the genes of an antigen into another organism are called recombinant vaccines.
  • Common subunit vaccines include those for hepatitis B.

Conjugated

  • These are new and are designed for children under 24 months whose immune system normally does not respond well to vaccines based on capsular polysaccharides.
  • These polysaccharides are T-independent antigens.
  • The vaccine is produced by combing the polysaccharides with a protein.

Nucleic acid

  • These vaccines are in the animal testing stage.
  • The nucleic acid vaccine, which is also called the DNA vaccine, contains plasmids of naked DNA and is designed to produce protein that stimulates an immune response.
  • The nucleic acid vaccine has a strong effect on large parasites and viruses.

Types of Vaccines

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