WORT PREPARATION

Wort Preparation

WORT PREPARATION

  • The objectives of wort preparation are to form, and extract into solution, fermentable sugars, amino acids, vitamins, etc., from malt and other solid ingredients.
  • Malt normally provides most of the potential fermentable materials and sufficient enzymes to generate a well balanced fermentation medium.
  • Typically, British beer is prepared from 75% malt, and 25% unmalted cereal and non-cereal starch sources, referred to as ‘adjunct’.
  • In some cases, a part of the adjunct is also in the form of sugar syrups that will be added later during wort boiling.
  • In the USA, up to 60% adjuncts may be used, while a maximum of 40% is recommended in the EU.
  • However, in Germany the beer purity law known as the Reinheitsgebot of 1516 still forbids the use of any adjuncts.
  • Replacement of some malt with adjuncts is especially for economic reasons.
  • Nevertheless, certain adjuncts, such as rice products, may improve specific beer properties, but contribute little flavor and enzyme activity.
  • Other mash adjuncts include raw barley, wheat flour, maize grits, and other flaked or micronized cereals.
  • Those with a high starch gelatinization temperature may require cooking before the main mash.
  • Traditionally, 5–10% (w/w) malt was added during cooking to provide amylases that hasten the process.
  • However, thermostable microbial a-amylases are now preferred.
  • Malt and those adjuncts requiring milling are usually roller-milled before to mashing.
  • This is often performed in such a way as to largely retain the husk intact, while reducing the remainder to a coarse powder.
  • The husk later acts as a filtration aid in wort separation.
  • Milled ingredients are transported to the mash vessel and mixed with hot water, the production of liquor, whose composition will influence final beer quality.
  • Consequently, it may be necessary to add or remove certain ions and adjust the pH.
  • Following mashing the liquid extract is separated from residual solids to create the wort, which must then be stable by boiling.
  • Resulting wort should be a well-balanced liquid medium that will supply the yeasts with all nutritional necessities for the subsequent fermentation.

WORT PREPARATION

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