Differences between innate and acquired immunity

Differences between innate and acquired immunity

Differences between innate and acquired immunity

There are two general types of immunity:-

  1. Innate immunity 
  2. Acquired immunity

Innate immunity: 

  • The innate immune system includes anatomical barriers against infection both physical and chemical as well as cellular responses

Acquired immunity:

  • Acquired immunity is also called adaptive immunity. 
  • Acquired immunity against a microbe may be induced by the host’s response to the microbe or by transfer of antibodies or lymphocytes specific for the microbes.

Differences between innate and acquired immunity

Feature Innate immunity Acquired immunity
Definition The resistance to infection that an individual possesses by virtue of genetic and constitutional makeup The resistance that an individual acquires during life
Types Nonspecific and specific Active and passive
Time taken to develop Hours Days
Specificity For structures shared by groups of related microbes For antigens of microbes and for nonmicrobial antigens
Memory response None; repeated exposure brings response like primary response Yes; secondary response much faster than primary response
Physical and chemical
barriers
Skin, mucosal epithelia, and antimicrobial chemicals Lymphocytes in epithelia and antibodies secreted at epithelial surfaces
Blood and tissue antimicrobial substances Complement; leukins from leukocytes, plakins from platelets, lactic acid found in muscle tissue, lactoperoxidase in milk, and interferons (antiviral) Antibodies
Major cell types Phagocytes (monocytes, macrophages,
neutrophils), natural killer (NK) cells, other leukocytes, epithelial and endothelial cells
T cells, B cells, antigen-presenting cells
Soluble components of blood Many antimicrobial peptides, proteins, and
other mediators
Antibodies and cytokines
Diversity A limited number of conserved, germ line
encoded receptors
Highly diverse; a very large number of receptors arising from genetic recombination of receptor genes in each individual
Response time Minutes/hours Days

Differences between innate and acquired immunity

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