Precipitation

Precipitation

Precipitation Precipitation shows the following features: It is a type of antigen–antibody reaction, in which the antigen occurs in a soluble form. It is a test in which antibody interacts with the soluble antigen in the presence of electrolyte at a specified pH and temperature to produce a precipitate. A lattice is formed between the …

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Antigen Antibody Reactions

Antigen Antibody Reactions

Antigen Antibody Reactions Introduction The interactions between antigens and antibodies are known as antigen antibody reactions. The reactions are highly specific, and an antigen reacts only with antibodies. These reactions are essentially specific, they have been used in many diagnostic tests for the detection of either the antigen or the antibody. The antigen and antibody …

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Sterilization

Sterilization

Sterilization Sterilization Sterilization is defined as a process by which an article, surface, or medium is freed of all living microorganisms. Any material that has been subjected to this process is said to be sterile. Methods of sterilization can be broadly classified as: Physical methods of sterilization. Chemical methods of sterilization. Physical methods of sterilization …

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Bacterial Growth Curve

Bacterial Growth Curve

Bacterial Growth Curve When a broth culture is inoculated with a small bacterial inoculum, the population size of the bacteria increases. The bacterial growth curve shows the following four distinct phases. Lag phase, Log phase, Stationary phase, Decline phase. Lag phase: After a liquid culture broth is inoculated, the multiplication of bacteria does not start immediately. It takes …

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Prokaryotic Cells

Prokaryotic Cells

Prokaryotic Cells INTRODUCTION A prokaryotic cell is a cell that does not have a true nucleus. The nuclear structure is called a nucleoid. The nucleoid contains most of the cell’s genetic material and is usually a single circular molecule of DNA. A prokaryotic organism, such as a bacterium, is a cell that lacks a membrane- …

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Eukaryotic Cells facts

Eukaryotic Cells facts

Eukaryotic Cells facts A eukaryotic cell is larger and more complex than a prokaryotic cell and found in animals, plants, algae, fungi, and protozoa. When we look at a eukaryotic cell with a microscope we’ll notice a highly organized structure of organelles that are bound by a membrane. Each organelle performs a specialized function for …

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Differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

Differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

Differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Overview of Prokaryotic Cells A prokaryotic cell is a cell that does not have a true nucleus. The nuclear structure is called a nucleoid. The nucleoid contains most of the cell’s genetic material and is usually a single circular molecule of DNA. A prokaryotic organism, such as a bacterium, …

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Types of Vaccines

Types of Vaccine

Types of Vaccines What Is a Vaccine? Vaccines play an important role in controlling the spread of viruses. A vaccine is a suspension that contains a part of a pathogen that induces the immune system to produce antibodies that combat the antigen. The concept of a vaccine stems from the variolation process that was used in …

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T Cells

T Cells

T Cells T cells develop from stem cells in bone marrow and migrate to the thymus gland where they mature. They then migrate to the lymphatic system to begin their fight against antigens. The “T” stands for thymus gland. Once the organism reaches late adulthood, the ability to create new T cells diminishes, resulting in …

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